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The Linux File System Structure

All users have a home directory and every named home directory is contained in a directory called "home" that is at the root level of the filing system. There are other directories at this level and they serve certain purposes as described below.

This command will list the directories and files at the root of the file system tree;

   ls /

bin   cdrom  etc   initrd.img      lib    lost+found  mnt  proc  run   srv  tmp  var      vmlinuz.old boot  dev    home  initrd.img.old  lib64  media       opt  root  sbin  sys  usr  vmlinuz

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/LinuxFilesystemTreeOverview Here, only the most important directories in the system will be presented.