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Introduction

The Advanced operation pages are to help you to do some rather complicated but very useful things.

Finding

On Unix and Linux a "file" is anything you can write data to or read data from. It includes not only stored data but also data communication channels between physical systems or processes.

Therefore hardware devices device like a disk drives, memory sticks or printers, are just treated as files in the file system.

Replacing

The Shell is a user process that provides a terminal, and processes the commands typed by the user. It can be accessed in Ubuntu via the menu Applications>Accessories>Terminal. Other Linux GUIs also provide the program Terminal.

In the old days the terminal might have been a real physical terminal but now it is just a simulation in a window.

Security

The kernel of an operating system is a process that provides a standard interface for other processes to use the non-standard functionality served by the varied hardware of different machines.

What a process does is defined by the program being run.